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2016年北京高考英语阅读七选五翻译与讲解

依然为常考的说明文。讲解了目前人类对“追求冒险”的研究。“风险追求”与人脑关系以及“追求冒险”对人类的影响。本文结构清晰,难度适中,解题线索明显,可通过上下句的关键词找到答案。

 2016年北京高考阅读之七选五
The Science of Risk-Seeking
追求冒险
Sometimes We decide that a little unnecessary danger is worth it because when we weigh the risk and the reward, the risk seems worth taking.  
有时候我们觉得一点不必要的危险是值得的,因为当我们权衡风险和回报时,前者似乎值得尽力一试。
 
71 However, we are not all using the same reference standard to weigh risks and rewards.   
然而,我们正在使用不同的参考标准去衡量风险与回报。
 
Some of us enjoy activities that would surprise and scare the rest of us. 
我们中的一些人喜欢那些另别人惊吓和吓到的活动。
 
Why? Experts say it may have to do with how our brains work. 
为什么呢?专家说这可能和我们的大脑是如何工作的有关。
 
The reason why any of us take any risks at all might have to do with early humans. 
我们竭尽全力的去冒险的原因和早期人类有关。
 
Risk-takers were better at hunting, fighting, or exploring.    
冒险者更擅长打猎,战斗或者探险。
 
72 Being better at those things meant a greater chance of survival. 
在那些方面做得很好意味着更大的生存机会。
 
As the quality of Risk-taking was passed from one generation to the next, humans ended up with a sense of adventure and a tolerance for risk. 
随着喜爱冒险精神这种品质从一代传给下一代,人们最终有了冒险精神和对风险的忍耐力。
 
So why aren’t we all jumping out of airplanes then? 
既然如此,那么为什么我们不都跳下飞机呢?
 
Well, even 200,000 years ago, too much risk-taking could get one killed. 
即使是在20万年前,太多的冒险也可能让人丧命。
 
A few daring survived, though, along with a few stay-in-the-cave types. 
虽然也有一些胆大的人和一些呆在山洞里的人一样活了下来。
 
As a result, humans developed a range of character types that still exists today. 
结果,人类所发展形成的不同性格当今依然存在。
 
So maybe you love car racing, or maybe you hate it.  
因此,可能你喜欢赛车,或者可能不喜欢它。
 
73    It all depends on your character. 
这都由你的性格所决定。
 
No matter where you are on the risk-seeking range, scientists say that your willingness to take risks increases during your teenage years.  
无论你处于何等风险级别,科学家说在青少年时期,你愿意冒险的意愿会增加。
 
74 This is when you start to move away from your family and into the bigger world. 
这是你离开家进入更广阔世界的时期。
 
To help you do that, your brain increases your hunger for new experiences. 
为了帮助你做到那个,你的大脑会更加渴望新体验。
 
New experiences often mean taking some risks, so your brain raises your tolerance for risk as well
新的体验常常意味着冒些风险,因此你的大脑也会增加你对风险的忍耐值。
 
75New brain research suggests our brains work differently when we face a nervous situation.   
新的大脑研究表明当我们面对紧张的情况时,我们的大脑以不同的方式工作。
 
For the risk-seekers, a part of the brain related to pleasure becomes active, while for the rest of us, a part of the brain related to fear becomes active.  
对于喜欢冒险的人来说,大脑中与快乐相关的部分会变得活跃,而不喜欢冒险的人来说,他们大脑中与恐惧相关的部分变得活跃。
 
As experts continue to study the science of risk-seeking, we’ll continue to hit the mountains, the waves or the shallow end of the pool. 
当专家继续研究追求冒险这一科学时,我们也会继续攀登高山,乘风破浪,或者只在泳池的浅水区徘徊。