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2016年全国高考英语1卷即乙卷阅读理解D篇翻译和讲解

本文为说明文。主要讲述了沉默在不同文化当中的含义。不同国家的人对沉默的理解可能不同,需要明白这沉默所代表的含义。并阐述了护士应该明白她们所照顾的病人的沉默的含义,从而更好的帮助病人恢复健康。较有难度。

2016年全国高考英语1卷即乙卷阅读理解D篇
The meaning of silence varies among cultural groups. Silences may be thoughtful, or they may be empty when a person has nothing to say. 
在不同的文化里,沉默的含义也不同。沉默可能意味着深思熟虑,或者当一个人不知道说些什么时意味着无聊。
 
A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness, uneasiness or worry. 
谈话里的沉默可能表明了倔强,不安或忧虑。
 
Silence may be viewed by some cultural groups as extremely uncomfortable; therefore attempts may be made to fill every gap (间隙) with conversation. 
在一些文化里,沉默可能被认为是极其的不舒服,不自在了,因此人们可能会尝试用交谈填补沉默。
 
Persons in other cultural groups value silence and view it as necessary for understanding a person’s needs. 
其它的文化里,人们重视沉默,把它视为了解一个人需求的必要元素。
 
Many Native Americans value silence and feel it is a basic part of communicating among people, just as some traditional Chinese and Thai persons do. 
许多本土的美国人重视沉默,认为它是人与人之间交流的必要部分,就像一些传统的中国人和泰国人一样。
 
Therefore, when a person from one of these cultures is speaking and suddenly stops, what may be implied (暗示) is that the person wants the listener to consider what has been said before continuing. In these cultures, silence is a call for reflection.
因此,当一个以上国家的人正在说话时,突然停下来,他可能在暗示他希望听话者去考虑他刚说过的话。在这些文化里,沉默是对深思的召唤。
 
Other cultures may use silence in other ways, particularly when dealing with conflicts among people or in relationships of people with different amounts of power. 
在一些文化里,人们也许在其它方面使用沉默,尤其是当处理与他人的矛盾或者是与在不同影响力的人打交道时。
 
For example, Russian, French, and Spanish persons may use silence to show agreement between parties about the topic under discussion. 
例如,俄国人,法国人和西班牙人可能用沉默去表明对一个几方讨论的问题的赞同。
 
However, Mexicans may use silence when instructions are given by a person in authority rather than be rude to that person by arguing with him or her. 
然而,当一个有权威的人给一个墨西哥人教诲指导时,墨西哥人可能会保持沉默,而不是没有礼貌的和他或她争辩。
 
In still another use, persons in Asian cultures may view silence as a sign of respect, particularly to an elder or a person in authority.
在亚洲文化里,人们可能把沉默视为尊重的标志,尤其是对一个年长的人或者有权威的人。
 
Nurses and other care-givers need to be aware of the possible meanings of silence when they come across the personal anxiety their patients may be experiencing. 
当护士和其他的护理者偶然发现他们所照料的病人表现出焦虑时,他们应该知道这沉默可能代表的含义。
 
Nurses should recognize their own personal and cultural construction of silence so that a patient’s silence is not interrupted too early or allowed to go on unnecessarily. 
护士应该能识别出他们的个人层面和文化层面对沉默的解释,因此才不会过早地妨碍病人的沉默或者对这沉默放任自流。
 
A nurse who understands the healing (治愈) value of silence can use this understanding to assist in the care of patients from their own and from other cultures.
明白沉默的治愈价值的护士可以运用这种理解更好的照顾和他们来自同一个文化背景和其它文化背景的病人。
 
32. What does the author say about silence in conversations? 
      A. It implies anger.      B. It promotes friendship. 
      C. It is culture-specific.  D. It is content-based. 
33. Which of the following people might regard silence as a call for careful thought? 
      A. The Chinese. B. The French. C. The Mexicans. D. The Russians. 
34. What does the author advise nurses to do about silence? 
      A. Let it continue as the patient pleases. 
      B. Break it while treating patients.
      C. Evaluate its harm to patients. 
      D. Make use of its healing effects. 
35. What may be the best title for the text? 
      A. Sound and Silence 
      B. What It Means to Be Silent 
      C. Silence to Native Americans 
      D. Speech Is Silver; Silence Is Gold