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英语语法入门之介词04

常见及易混介词用法辨析
6. 表示“在附近”的near, by, beside
(1) near 在……附近,与far 相对。如;
My home is near the school. 我的家离学校很近。
(2) by = beside,靠近,在……旁边,比near 距离更近.
   Sit by /beside me.
 
7. 表示“像,如同”的As 和 like
as表示比较的双方具有同一性(即同属一类或完全相似),而like 只表示在某些方面相似而已。如:
He acts like a doctor. 他的行为像医生(但是他并不是医生)
He acts as a doctor. 他的行为像医生(事实上他也是老师)。
You speak English like an Englishman.你说英语有点像英国人。(和英国人说英语在某些方面相似)
You speak English as an Englishman.你说英语就像英国人。(英语说得跟英国人一样好)
 
8.表示“对于”的For 和to
(1) To sb 是一种与说话人切身利益有关的,很主观的看法。而 for sb 则更多
的是概念性的,强调客观的事实。如:
He said that money was not important to him. 他说钱对他并不重要。
Smoking is bad for our health.
(2) for 是有一种目的和原因在里面,强调专门为某人做...这个人是受益者。而 'to' 只是简单的一个传递动作的过程。如:
My mom cooks dinner for us every day.
Please pass the ball to me .

9. beyond超出,
(1). 表位置,意为“在(向)...远的一边,越过...”.如:
The river is beyond the mountains.
(2). 表时间,意为“晚于,迟于,超过”,一般用于否定句中。如:
Don't come home beyond 10.
(3). 表年龄或数量,程度,范围,能力等,意为“超过,超过”.
He is wise beyond his age.
This task is beyond me.
His desire is beyond his ability.
Beyond that , I know nothing.
 
10. Against, 靠着,反对,迎着,顶着,映衬。如;
I declare that I will fight against you.
He hit his head against the door.
The handsome man standing against the car was her boyfriend.

11. Around(round)
A.  表示"环绕","周围"。如:
The earth goes round(around)the sun(地球绕太阳运行).
They sat round(around)the table.(他们围着桌子而坐)
B.  表示"到处","无目的地","附近","左右"等,如:
The boy was around the corner. 这个男孩就在拐角处。
Look around.环顾四周。
 
12. Past,(指时间、数量等)超过;通过,越过,经过 2.(指范围、程度、能力等)超过。如:
It was ten past eight.
He walked past my house.
I saw him past.
She stared past me at the cat.
 
13. Along, 沿着;顺着;如;
Go along the street.
Cats like walking along the wall.
 
14.Down, 向下;  在…的下方; (表方向)沿着…向下; 如:
Go along the street.
Keep your head down.

15. 用介词表达乘坐交通工具:
(1).介词by
(1)by+ 交通工具,表达乘坐的时候,交通工具需要用单数的形式,而且前面没有修饰的词。比如:by bus, by bike, by plane, by train, by car, by taxi/cab, by ship, by subway.特殊:on foot. 特殊:by sea 从海路;by air 坐飞机; By water 从水路
(2). 介词in 或者是On
 “ In/on+冠词/形容词性物主代词+交通工具名词”.
A. 一般来说乘坐大型封闭型交通工具时,用on/in均可;如:
in a plane,   on a plane  in a bus, on a bus  in a subway   on a subway.
B.  小型封闭型交通工具用in. 如:in a car.
C.  非封闭型交通工具用还是用on。如:on a bike  on a horse

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